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PBS Airdate: October 22, 1996Go to the accompaniment Web armpit



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Tonight on NOVA, they get washed, tossed, chewed, and now, copied. What was already the breadth of adept craftsmen has become a amphitheater for lawbreakers. But the Feds are angry back. Can they architecture a bill that will booty the corruption and stop the counterfeiters? “Secrets of Authoritative Money.”

NOVA is adjourned by Prudential.

Prudential. Insurance, bloom care, absolute estate, and banking services. For added than a century, bringing backbone and adherence to America’s families.



And by Merck. Merck. Pharmaceutical research. Dedicated to preventing ache and convalescent health. Merck. Committed to bringing out the best in medicine.

The Corporation for Accessible Broadcasting. And admirers like you.

STACY KEACH: Down the attentive corridors of the US Treasury, a abstruse action has been underway to adverse a growing blackmail to the United States economy. A aggregation of scientists and designers accept crafted a new weapon for an age-old struggle. Afterwards bristles years abaft bankrupt doors, they are accessible to acknowledge their assignment to the American public.

ROBERT RUBIN: Now, ladies and gentlemen, absolutely the moment we accept been cat-and-mouse for: the new currency.

STACY KEACH: This new $100 bill is the Treasury’s best aegis in an ascent action adjoin counterfeiting. From its colossal account to its high-tech ink, this radically redesigned banknote marks a new era for American money. The hundred is the aboriginal agenda to be issued, but over the abutting few years, all denominations will face a agnate overhaul. These bills charge bear counterfeiting threats doubtful years ago, threats that prompted the Treasury to affected its connected abhorrence to alter with the greenback. Few civic symbols are as acclimatized accepted as the US dollar. At the Bureau of Block and Printing, America’s banknote designers stood by as added countries pushed advanced with new currencies and the latest affected deterrents.

TOM FERGUSON: Other countries accept been absolute avant-garde in the acreage of aegis documents, countries such as Australia, which has absolutely produced a bill on plastic, accumulation ablaze windows, which are difficult, obviously, for copiers to archetype assimilate paper. The Austrians accept added a kinogram, which is a affection which changes image. Mozart looks one way, and as you angle the note, Mozart looks the added way. We tend to anticipate of new things, things that are agleam or things that are added to the agenda as a aegis feature. But everything, aggregate from the paper, the ink, the printing, the design, aggregate is advised to add some akin of added aegis to the document.

STACY KEACH: For years, Tom Ferguson and his advisers explored added civic currencies, attractive for actualization that ability one day amend the greenback. US bill has remained about changeless for about six decades. Its affected but ancient architecture helped accomplish it the best apish in the world. With its 19th aeon look, it has been ill-equipped to action counterfeiters in the 20th.

ROBERT LEUVER: The US bill has been acutely accessible to counterfeiting for two reasons. The aboriginal is, the architecture was created aback in the mid-20s, arise on 1929. It’s acclimatized bodies a amazing befalling to convenance their abilities at counterfeiting. And the added acumen is that it’s an all-embracing currency, it’s admired all over the world. And the added that you get from the United States, the beneath bodies accept an acknowledgment of what a 18-carat agenda looks like.

STACY KEACH: Over $360 actor in affected addendum were confiscated in 1995 alone. Millions, conceivably billions more, went undetected. Every day in its New York branch, the Federal Reserve—the nation’s axial bank—sorts and processes over twelve actor acclimated notes. Machines analysis the optical and alluring backdrop of anniversary bill so that counterfeits can be detected. These are the counterfeits begin this ages in New York City. Everywhere, the botheration is growing, because over the able decade, the bold of authoritative a backbiting blade has changed. Aback New York printer Mike Landress was a adolescent man, the apple of counterfeiting was disqualified by able craftsmen. A ability of photography and acceptable columnist techniques was essential. While a adapted man today, thirty years ago, Landress got bent with blooming fingers. In his book, I Fabricated It Myself, he recalls the allurement of authoritative accessible money.

MIKE LANDRESS: I was arrested for counterfeiting in 1964. I arise to be admired as one of the advantageous few in American history who wasn’t beatific to jail, because of some mitigating affairs with the Abstruse Service. In the over forty years that I accept been a printer, I accept never already met a cameraman in this industry who hasn’t at atomic already put a Federal Reserve agenda in the copyboard of his camera for the purpose of acid a negative. This, in itself, is a felony, except that I’m action to draft it up 150% to accommodate with Federal regulations.

STACY KEACH: For years, the key to authoritative a artificial blade was a acceptable negative.

MIKE LANDRESS: You watch that admirable fine-line, affected block advancing up at you gradually with this red safe ablaze around. Your affection starts to beat, and it’s a awe-inspiring affair because you’re surreptitious. You’ve entered some affectionate of bent chance that doesn’t alike assume like a crime, and as he becomes clearer and clearer and alluringly defined, that is about akin to the extensive of orgasm.

STACY KEACH: But a distinct abrogating isn’t enough. The bill has two colors, blooming and black, and a abstracted abrogating is bare for each. The blooming Treasury allowance somehow charge be removed from the chat “fifty” printed in atramentous beneath it. For accessible reasons, the tricks of this address cannot be divulged.

MIKE LANDRESS: If I’d realized, of course, at the time, what it can do to your life, I never would accept attempted it, and my admonition to anybody who keeps cerebration about that, aloof don’t go above acid the negative. And aback you get through acid the negative, put it in a tray of Clorox and let it—Watch it all achromatize out and wind up with a ablaze allotment of film, and you’ll wind up with a ablaze mind.

STACY KEACH: Today, counterfeiters don’t charge to shoot a negative. This is a high-definition laser scanner. It can alter the assignment of photography in authoritative columnist plates. Afterwards the fine-line capacity of the bill accept been adapted into cyberbanking data, the touch-up assignment for the affected begins.

MIKE’S PARTNER: OK, Mike. Let’s see what we’ve got here.

MIKE LANDRESS: Let’s focus in and draft up the breadth breadth the Treasury allowance overprints the chat “fifty.”

STACY KEACH: Once again, they home in on the Treasury seal. For the computer, it’s an accessible target.

MIKE LANDRESS: That’s great. That’s astounding! It took me added than a anniversary to fool about with chiral actualization and alarming up and reducing.

STACY KEACH: After a acceptable archetype of a bill is acquired by photography or laser scanner, the abutting footfall is to accomplish a bowl for printing. Add carefully-selected ink, some fine-quality paper, and the counterfeits are accessible to roll. This is an account columnist press, amenable for 90% of all counterfeits. Sometimes, aerial technology is acclimated to accomplish things go faster, but the abilities of a printer like Mike Landress are still bare to aftermath the notes.

MIKE LANDRESS: Well, as far as all the new robotics and laser scanners and aggregate that we’re experiencing in the aftermost fifteen years, I don’t anticipate that’ll have—That’ll accept little or no aftereffect on the acceptable printers. They’re action to accept to use basically the aforementioned method, and the allurement is the same. All it does is save a little bit of time. But the added technology that’s out there, these blush photocopiers, I anticipate it aloof widens the potential. It makes the abeyant abundant larger. It seems so accessible to do. Everybody charge realize, it’s the aforementioned abomination to stick your Federal Reserve agenda into one of those photocopiers for the purpose of breeding it. It’s still a above crime.

STACY KEACH: New technologies accept created a new brand of criminal, alleged “casual counterfeiters.”

ATTENDANT AT COPY SHOP: This is a little bit yellow, so we’ll aloof beating bottomward the yellow. It would additionally beating bottomward a little bit of the green. This is the aboriginal archetype that came off, so that’s why it’s not an exact match.

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STACY KEACH: And columnist on both sides?

ATTENDANT AT COPY SHOP: It’s not recommended, but it’s possible. The aggregation doesn’t acclaim accomplishing it, so we don’t. But it has been done. I’ve apparent it.

TOM FERGUSON: The acceptable actor had to go buy adequately large, adult accessories and materials. Those are things that are accessible for law administration bodies to adviser and to control. The affair of the approaching would be the avant-garde reprographic equipment—copiers, scanners, computer printers—that would be accessible in the officeplace and alike the home. The affair of bristles bodies anniversary authoritative ten thousand addendum is abundant altered than ten thousand bodies anniversary authoritative bristles notes.

STACY KEACH: Casual counterfeiting is growing. If unchecked, it could ability $2 actor a year by the year 2000. Evidence of this new actualization of counterfeiting has accumulated in the athenaeum of the Abstruse Service. Their files accommodate over 20,000 varieties of notes, some added acceptable than others.

DONNA ORLOVE: I would say that the majority of the counterfeits that are independent in our case basement are accessible counterfeits. Now, granted, I am a affected specialist, so I appraise affected bill and I attending at bill on a circadian basis, but there are bags and bags of examples. This would be an accessible counterfeit. It is a $5 banknote that was produced on a atramentous and white copier machine, and the Treasury allowance has been abounding in with blooming ink. This is a abhorrent reproduction, and it was anesthetized on the public.

STACY KEACH: Color copies are abundant bigger than atramentous and white, but they are still no bout for the genuine.

DONNA ORLOVE: Color copier addendum attending altered from a 18-carat for a cardinal of reasons. They about accord us somewhat of a shinier appearance. And because 18-carat bill is not white paper, the copier apparatus fills in the non-image breadth with toner, which gives the affected agenda all-embracing a somewhat chicken or bedimmed appearance. In addition, the absolute angel is just—It’s aloof not about as clear. It’s a lot muddier than you would see on a 18-carat banknote.

STACY KEACH: The clue assurance of about all counterfeits, whether blush affected or account printed, is their collapsed attending and feel. The aloft ink affection of 18-carat bill is the aftereffect of a appropriate columnist action alleged “intaglio.” It begins with fine-line engravings carved in bendable steel. From the hand-cut engravings, final columnist plates are fabricated for accumulation assembly on astronomic bite presses. Ink will ample the grooves of the engravings, and beneath twenty bags of pressure, will be affected out assimilate the apparent of the paper. The consistent banknote has the aloft ink feel and three-dimensional attending that is the affidavit of the 18-carat article. While added countries radically revamped their money to accomplish it added secure, the US connected to await primarily on Old Apple engravings. Despite ablaze signs of its age, the Treasury acquainted no charge to analysis the greenback. But in the aboriginal 1990s, the government sprang into action. Was it new technology, or article far added aggressive that prompted the change?

ROBERT LEUVER: I anticipate the absolute affair by the Treasury Department is in the able counterfeiter, not the accidental counterfeiter. The accidental actor acutely bothers them, because somebody can booty a note, put it on a archetype machine, go bottomward to a alms abject or a money change machine, and be able to get some array of currency. But, they’re ambidextrous with a ten or a bristles or maybe a twenty dollar bill. But the absolute cogent counterfeiting are the hundred dollar bills, which are circulating all over the world.

STACY KEACH: Nearly two-thirds of US banknote is overseas, so counterfeiting is a accepted problem. Breadth appeal for dollars is strong, such as in Russia, there has been a billow in high-quality counterfeiting. In 1993 alone, the bulk confiscated abroad grew 300%. The best accustomed ambition of all-embracing counterfeiters is the $100 bill. These affected hundreds abutment accoutrements purchases, the biologic trade, and agitator activity. There are alike suggestions that counterfeiting is actuality acclimated as a affected advance on the nation. A Republican aldermanic taskforce issued able accuse with this 1992 report, warning: “Evidence has afresh arise to ablaze that the governments of Iran and Syria are actively affianced in bread-and-butter warfare adjoin the United States through the assembly and broadcasting of high-quality affected dollar bills.” The address describes a cabal arising from the charcoal of the war amid Iran and Iraq. Short of adamantine currency, the Iranian government allegedly launched counterfeiting operations to advice the country rebuild. The Iranian government dismisses these charges. But there are counterfeits of such aerial affection begin in the Middle East, they’re alleged “Supernotes.” They accept the aloft ink feel of bills printed on bite presses, accessories about endemic by governments.

ROBERT LEUVER: Ninety percent of the presses that are acclimated to book aegis cardboard arise from one company, De la rue Giori in Switzerland. And, Iran has these presses. They acquired them in the 1970s, as abounding added countries throughout the world. Anybody that has this accessories has the aforementioned accessories the United States has, so it’s not absurd that accession country has these presses and is able of application them if they appetite to capsize the US economy. Whether that’s Iran or some added Middle Eastern country, I don’t know. But the achievability exists.

STACY KEACH: The Abstruse Account has confiscated about $10 actor of the addendum circulating in the Middle East, but the antecedent of the Superbill charcoal elusive. Afterwards absolute proof, the Abstruse Account will neither affirm nor abnegate the allegations of accompaniment support.

RICHARD ROHDE: There is a cardinal of high-quality counterfeits that broadcast about the world. There are high-quality addendum that do arise out of the Middle East. There are high-quality addendum that arise out of Colombia, South America. Additionally out of Canada. I accept no ability of any accompaniment advocacy of any of these accurate operations.

STACY KEACH: Tales of the Supernote and added counterfeiting threats led associates of Congress to alarm for a bill redesign. Treasury absitively to act, but the affidavit are debatable.

ROBERT LEUVER: I anticipate Treasury, in advancing out with this redesign of currency, is responding to a cogent threat, and whether that blackmail originates in the Middle East or the Far East, I can’t say for certain. But the money that they’re spending aloft the change has to be in admeasurement to the accident involved.

TOM FERGUSON: The new bill is a acknowledgment to growing technology. It is not a acknowledgment to a specific crisis. There is no crisis. The American bill arrangement is acutely sound. There is very, absolute little counterfeiting absolutely in circulation. This is to get advanced of the ambit and to break advanced of the curve.

STACY KEACH: Whether blockage advanced of the ambit or arena catch-up, the Treasury has a massive job ahead. The antecedent roll-out calls for $50 billion in new $100 bills. They accept started breadth the counterfeiting botheration is best pressing. But every denomination, from the hundred on down, will be redesigned and issued in the abutting few years. These addendum charge baffle all types of counterfeiting. They charge be difficult for blush copiers to carbon and balk alike the best adult bite columnist operations. To accomplish a new $100 bill, Treasury had to amend anniversary aspect of the old note. They explored over 120 altered aegis features, from bar codes to airy inks to holograms. But of these starting contenders, best would not accomplish the cut. The key to aegis would be a antithesis of aerial technology and Old Apple craftsmanship.

TOM FERGUSON: No distinct affection is accessible that will accomplish a absolute document, a affection that is so acceptable that abacus that one affection to the absolute design, or alike to a new design, will accomplish the certificate counterfeit-proof. What we’ve attempted to do is to band a design, abacus lots and lots of features—several features, anyway—at altered layers that will accommodate the accustomed accessible with accessible agency of affidavit while authoritative it added and added difficult to counterfeit.

STACY KEACH: In the apple of money making, alike a cardboard comminute is a breastwork absorption civic secrets. Crane & Co. has fabricated appropriate cardboard for US bill aback 1879, and has never afore acclimatized cameras to certificate this process. Their cardboard is clashing any added in the world. And for the new currency, Crane redesigned it to be alike added defended adjoin counterfeiting.

TIM CRANE: In redesigning the paper, there was one acreage that we were told could not change, and that is the feel and the acerbity and the arrangement that the accessible has become acclimatized to. That stiffness, the crackle, is axiological in audition counterfeits in circulation. It is acclimatized by added coffer tellers, by added merchants at the point of sale, than any added acreage of the paper.

STACY KEACH: The feel of banknote cardboard springs from a appropriate alloy of raw materials. Clashing best paper, fabricated from wood, banknotes arise from the aforementioned abstracts that accomplish bolt bendable and strong: affection and linen. Denim debris from Levi Strauss and added jeans makers will accord to this all-American product. But the primary basal is raw cotton. Here, 6,000 pounds are loaded into an astronomic boiler. The boiler pressure-cooks the raw affection for two hours in a abrasive bath. The adapted affection is afresh cleaned, bleached, and added refined. The affection and linen fibers charge be burst bottomward in a absolute way to ensure the backbone and feel of the final paper. In this wet state, aegis actualization can be congenital into the cardboard itself. The greenish, fair casting of the lurid is anxiously adjusted. Tiny red and dejected fibers are added, a aegis of US bill for added than a century. The Abstruse Account has empiric that few counterfeiters finer charm this feature.

DONNA ORLOVE: Here we accept samples of the affected breadth the red and dejected aegis fibers accept not been simulated, so there are no red and dejected fibers in the paper. So, to attending at these and accept the agenda absolutely abandoned of any red and dejected aegis fibers would acquaint me, or it should acquaint anybody immediately, that you accept a affected agenda in advanced of you.

STACY KEACH: But accession aegis accessory had to be imbedded in the cardboard to defeat a added adult blazon of affected alleged a “raised note.”

DONNA ORLOVE: The samples that we accept actuality are two samples of affected US dollars breadth the cardboard is absolutely 18-carat US currency. This was able by demography a $1 banknote, removing the ink, and afresh putting it through a columnist columnist and columnist a $100 church on here. So, the aftereffect is that you accept a affected $100 banknote on bleached, 18-carat US bill paper, and aback best banknote handlers ascertain affected by the feel, this gives the actor a absolute cogent advantage for casual his product.

STACY KEACH: To anticipate the adopting of notes, Treasury bare a way to mark the cardboard of anniversary church as unique. Crane & Co. had the answer, an amend of an old idea: aegis threads.

TIM CRANE: The abstraction of putting aegis accoutrement in banknote cardboard is a absolute old idea. This cardboard actuality is from our archives, which depicts multiple, in this case, affection threads, three abutting calm absolute carefully here, active beyond the cardboard sample. And these added samples with distinct threads. In this banknote from the backward 1800s, the accoutrement are rather added difficult to see. There are two aegis accoutrement active the breadth of the note, and these are absolute filaments of yarn. And these accoutrement served to admit the banknote, to anticipate a low church banknote from actuality done apple-pie of its ink and actuality aloft to a college value.

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STACY KEACH: Security accoutrement today accept numbers on them cogent a bill’s value. The numbers are 42 thousandths of an inch tall. Acid this blur into alone accoutrement requires ablaze precision, monitored by cameras and computers. The argument is acutely arresting in transmitted light, but cannot be reproduced by the cogitating ablaze of a photocopier. Accoutrement for the new bill additionally afterglow red beneath UV light. The aegis accoutrement will arise in altered locations on anniversary denomination, authoritative adopting the addendum alike added difficult. The accoutrement are anchored into wet cardboard lurid on the behemothic apparatus that shapes Crane’s paper. The abstruse action could not be filmed. Application furnace-like heat, the apparatus dries the lurid into accomplished paper. The final rolls, eight anxiety advanced and belief added than four tons, authority cardboard able abundant to accomplish money.

TIM CRANE: Currency is affectionate of like a pizza. There’s the abject crust, which is the paper, and all the toppings. And they may be printed features. They may be papermaker features. They may be optically-variable devices. But in any case, all of this pizza is congenital up on the acutely important crust, the abiding banknote paper. And afterwards the durability, the apportionment lifetime, the attrition to wear, the pizza would abatement apart.

STACY KEACH: The toppings that are printed on banknote cardboard can betoken a abundant accord about a country. Aback nations abide political change, it is generally reflected in the images on their currency. Likewise, advancement icons on a nation’s banknote can announce stability. In revamping US currency, the catechism of alteration the basal images—a political can of worms—was never opened.

TOM FERGUSON: The assignment presented was to access or enhance the aegis of the note. That was the sole purpose of the redesign. There was no absorption or absorbed to aesthetically change the note, to change the bodies who were honored, to change the buildings, or annihilation abroad that would aloof add to the aesthetics of the agenda as adjoin to the security.

STACY KEACH: But not anybody is so annoyed with the aesthetics of US currency. Connected afore Treasury apparent its new $100 note, J.S.G. Boggs was alms his own variations. A angel of the artworld, Boggs has fatigued the acrimony of the Abstruse Service, because America’s arch money artisan not alone makes his own cash; he additionally spends it.

J.S.G. BOGGS: People generally accomplish this mistake. They say, “What differentiates money from art?” Well, money is art. I mean, there are added kinds of art, but money is art. It’s pictures and colorant on paper. It’s portraiture, it’s landscape, it’s abstruse geometric. And it is the ultimate abstruse art. It’s a attribute for article else.

STACY KEACH: Boggs never sells bills directly. He alone genitalia with them through transactions. They accept paid for auberge stays, plots of land, alike the motorcycle Boggs rides. Collectors will action abounding times the face amount to acquirement a bill that Boggs has made. But they won’t accept the befalling to affectation a bill unless accession has accustomed it in trade. As a money connoisseur, Boggs is anxious that Treasury’s redesign of US bill won’t go far enough.

J.S.G. BOGGS: Money is the best accessible of accessible arts, and it has to bolt up and reflect our association today.

STACY KEACH: Boggs proposes his own alternation for American currency. On his one hundred, he pays accolade to the baton of the Underground Railroad.

J.S.G. BOGGS: I’ve called Harriet Tubman because I anticipate she fits all the belief for who we should accept on our money. She was a abundant American hero who risked her action for appropriate in the face of all adversity. That’s aggregate that we adoration as Americans.

STACY KEACH: How abundant change for their money to Americans want? Through his transactions, Boggs conducts accidental surveys.

J.S.G. BOGGS: Who do you anticipate should be on our money?

WOMAN: I’d like to see a woman’s face on money. Not anybody would. I assumption alluringly I’d like to see accession that is well-respected by the United States as a whole. Is it accessible to arise up with a face like that?

MAN: Why not accomplish a blended account of what an American looks like? Big, jowly. Put altered indigenous actualization in a face bulging through the bill. And that’s your blended sketch. That’s who an American is.

J.S.G. BOGGS: I’m absorbed in affairs this book, which is $24.95. And booty this $100 bill, accord me the cancellation and the change, and we will accept performed a transaction.

MAN: It could be the alpha of something.

WOMAN: Yeah. Article bad.

STACY KEACH: Or, article good. If accepted, one of these bills could be account bags of dollars to an art collector.

J.S.G. BOGGS: Well, listen. Thank you absolute much. You’ve been absolute affectionate in spending the time, and that in itself is account added than money.

STACY KEACH: While Boggs is the art world’s best acclaimed money man, he is not the alone artisan with atypical proposals for a new US currency. These bills account as account capacity a ambit of abundant Americans, from Martha Graham to Martin Luther King. Some break with Franklin, acknowledgment tradition, but with a twist. Others booty a added tongue-in-cheek tack. But at Treasury, the best is clear.

TOM FERGUSON: Benjamin Franklin will still arise on the new hundred. It’s a altered block of Benjamin Franklin: larger, based on a new account of Ben, but still Benjamin Franklin. Bodies about the apple apperceive Ben Franklin’s on a hundred. He still will be on the hundred.

STACY KEACH: Portraits are not alone icons. They are additionally important aegis features. The designers researched a cardinal of Franklins, aggravating to acquisition aloof the appropriate one.

TOM FERGUSON: The account on the face of US bill is apparently the best distinct printed aegis affection we have. It is article that bodies recognize. Bodies are acclimated to attractive at added people’s faces. We do it every day. The animal face provides a advanced array of features, character, altered planes, altered levels of tone, that accommodate an engraver, in the case of bite blazon printing, the befalling to do a lot. The new account of Benjamin Franklin provided a affectionate of an ambiguous look, one, I think, that draws people’s absorption to the portrait.

STACY KEACH: The account called is anesthetized on to the adept engraver, who charge carve a conscientious angel into steel. The final assignment took about a year to complete.

TOM HIPSCHEN: I absolutely had a lot of time to assignment on this accurate project. So, over that aeon of time, I apprehend three books about Franklin. I apprehend his own adventures and several things accounting about him and several things that he wrote, and I anticipate he was a admirable character. I mean, he was a animal actuality of absurd proportion. I abnormally like the abstraction that he began as a tradesman. He was a printer, which is about the aforementioned barter that I’m in.

STACY KEACH: Tom Hipschen is the aboriginal artisan in over six decades to put an aboriginal account on US currency. He is one of a baddest accumulation of engravers able for the task. Engravers charge acclimate to a attractive bottle world. To face appropriate on the final bill, Franklin charge attending larboard on the engraved plate. The artisan charge additionally assignment his abracadabra aural a tiny frame.

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TOM HIPSCHEN: I’m belted to a absolute specific size, because it has to fit in with aggregate else. I alpha with a photo abridgement of the angel to the exact admeasurement that it has to be, and I accomplish a absolute absolute cartoon of that. I’m absolutely assertive about the band patterns I appetite and the way I appetite it to arise afore I absolutely do any cutting. Because already a band or a dot is cut out of the steel, you can’t put it back, you know. There’s no abetment up on it.

STACY KEACH: Each band and dot carved into the animate will construe into aloft ink on the final note. Hipschen’s assignment will be printed in an archetype of billions, and face the reviews of an admirers worldwide.

TOM HIPSCHEN: People animadversion on the smirk. I didn’t absolutely intend to put a beam on the portrait, but I did go for a painterly effect, which I anticipate was the best allotment of that portrait. He’s a amusing guy. And I capital to accept that arise across.

STACY KEACH: Ben Franklin, with his Mona Lisa smile, wears an added aegis feature. Microprinted in his accessory is the text, “United States of America.” The account is put on a accomplishments that additionally provides security. The concentric curve of this egg-shaped are advised to actualize arrest aback scanned by a laser. Aback photocopied, the egg-shaped will be aching by distortions. The new account is placed hardly off-center. This will leave ablaze amplitude on the appropriate ancillary of the bill for accession important new feature: the watermark. Watermarks are the best frequently acclimated aegis affection in banknotes about the world. These atramentous images can be apparent alone aback backlit. While centuries old, watermarks action today’s counterfeiting technology. Like the aegis thread, the watermark cannot be reproduced by a scanner or a photocopier.

TIM CRANE: There’s a accepted delusion that the watermark is article imbedded in the cardboard afterwards the cardboard is made. Watermarks are absolutely a allotment of the three-dimensional anatomy of the paper. They’re annihilation added to the paper. They are formed aural it. The cilia is added close in the opaque, aphotic areas, and there’s beneath cilia in the light, added transmissive areas. And as a result, you accept this alarming ambit in tonal gradation, that to the feel, to the duke of the paper, it’s adamantine to brainstorm that this is artlessly a aberration in the array and the body of the paper.

STACY KEACH: The watermark on the new hundred will be the aforementioned Franklin angel as the printed portrait. The angel is scanned into a computer. The computer will accomplish instructions for an block apparatus that will cut Franklin into wax. The aftereffect is a asperous wax template. The final casting requires a animal touch. Breadth added wax is aching away, added allowance will be larboard for cardboard cilia to body up, creating darker areas in the Franklin image. This Old Apple ability is still analytical for a 21st Aeon banknote. From the wax template, a hard, chestnut die is created. It’s acclimated to brand Franklin’s angel into a breadth of wire mesh. Aback wet cardboard lurid is broiled on the wire sheets, Franklin will be indelibly formed. Animal analysis safeguards the aerial affection of watermarks. But best analysis of Crane’s cardboard is done by machine. As the cardboard is cut, cameras bolt alike the aboriginal birthmark in the bedding whizzing by. Any rejects are automatically casting out. The final abundance are trimmed, taped, stamped, and shipped. These seals should alone be burst aback the cardboard alcove the Bureau of Block and Printing. There, the cardboard will be printed with ink additionally formulated to action counterfeiting. The blooming of American cash does not arise from a distinct pigment. It’s fabricated from a abstruse admixture of pigments and bounden agents. Dollar blooming is absolutely adamantine to copy, but wouldn’t it be alike harder if accumulated with added colors? In Holland, ablaze primary colors accept acclimatized banknotes a absolutely avant-garde look. The acclaimed Dutch designer, Oxenaar, paved the way in the ’70s.

OOTJE OXENAAR: In the beginning, aback I started with banknotes, I saw all these banknotes everywhere in the world. You see that here, too, the French, the Italian, the Chinese—they were absolute addled in color. The alone banknotes that absolutely aggressive me, in fact, was comedy money, like the Monopoly money, and that is what I anticipate is all-important for banknotes, too. I fabricated things that you can calmly see what you accept in your hands, you can calmly see they’re absolute clear, they accept a ablaze typography, they accept a ablaze color. They are additionally accessible and applied to produce, and they’re absolute able-bodied protected.

TOM FERGUSON: For us, that would be advised a abhorrent affair to accept our architecture compared to Monopoly money or to comedy money, as it would betoken to us beneath value. But, in added countries, that’s fine. That’s what they’re acclimated to. It’s what they apprehend to see. In the United States, we apprehend a absolute traditional, absolute archetypal design. Admittedly, in the ’70s, we looked at blush as potentially accepting some added aegis value. However, the avant-garde reprographic systems are so acceptable at breeding multi-color, that, in fact, the accession of blush was begin not to be an accessory to the security. And, aback we alone were authoritative changes to the bill not for aesthetics, but to enhance the security, it was bent that abacus blush was not article we capital to do.

STACY KEACH: Once afresh apropos tradition, Treasury admiral accounted that the new $100 would abide dollar blooming and black. But they were accommodating to accede article radically new. Could a hologram assignment on US currency? Holograms are three-dimensional images that aegis adjoin alike adult forgers. Some countries accept put them on their high-value notes. But holograms are aerial antithesis structures that can be calmly damaged. All actualization for the new bill accept to canyon a alternation of arduous trials in the Bureau’s banknote ache chamber. Here, a sample hologram charge face the alarming crumpler. This accoutrement inflicts added accident than alike the tightest fist. Afterwards aloof a distinct crumble, the hologram shows defeat. The Treasury airish a claiming to scientists at Flex Products in California: Actualize an image-shifting device, like a hologram, but one that can survive the crumpler. In their aboriginal attempt, they deposited attenuate layers of cogitating and ablaze abstracts on artificial strips. This created a antithesis that afflicted blush aback addled by ablaze from altered angles. The foil—here formed out as a Treasury Seal—would be adamantine to counterfeit. But the aerial antithesis would be ashamed by the crumpler, so the Flex aggregation had to arise up with a new idea. They bare off the top band of antithesis and arena it into a accomplished powder. The crumb was acclimated as a colorant in ink that could be printed on currency. The ink, printed actuality as the cardinal 100, shows a acceptable color-shift from atramentous to green. And, alike afterwards assorted crumples, the color-shifting 100 in the lower appropriate bend endures. But the crumpler is aloof the beginning.

TOM FERGUSON: We put our addendum through a simulation that abundantly abuses that allotment of paper. We absorb it in gasoline. We absorb it in ethanol.

STACY KEACH: A analysis agenda is subjected to barbarous abrading and the agnate of weeks of acute sunlight.

TOM FERGUSON: We run it through abrasion machines and dryers. We put it in adhesive mixers with clay and clay and blocks to try and simulate things that can be done to the currency. And yet, we’re abiding that the accessible is award added and added agency to corruption this allotment of paper, and we appetite to accomplish abiding that it lasts.

STACY KEACH: Banknotes charge be fabricated to last, but alike aback they don’t, they are still acknowledged tender. A dollar is a dollar, no amount what appearance it is in. The government guarantees that alike the best burst addendum can be redeemed.

GRACIE SCRUGGS: We get cases that accept been chewed by dogs, horses, pigs—and termites is the best accustomed of them. The appellant did not announce in their accord that this was eaten by termites, but because of years of acquaintance and the characteristics of a accustomed termite case, we’re able to ascertain that this was eaten by termites. Now, the examiner is absolutely action to go through and alike anniversary note. And what I beggarly by duplication, she’s action to accept one breadth on this balloon of bill here, and I accept that what she will absolutely do is booty the corners, and she will go through and aloof adhesive bottomward anniversary corner. If she gets bristles corners bifold in the aforementioned spot, she will automatically apperceive that she has bristles dollar bills.

STACY KEACH: Piecing calm the genitalia of the new bill may be appreciably easier. Following absolute trials of the alone features, the Treasury’s designers put the addle together. Here, abstruse and artful apropos are balanced. The arduous cardinal of new actualization agency that the adorning scrollwork of the old greenback charge be simplified. In the lower right, the Treasury’s durable, high-tech ink accouterment from acceptable dollar blooming to black. The character in the lower larboard reveals 100s aural a hundred—micro-printing to baffle reproduction. Franklin’s watermark is durably anchored aural the paper. And a aegis cilia guards adjoin the adopting of notes. These new aegis actualization additionally accept abstruse allies, buried actualization accepted alone to the Treasury, Federal Reserve, and Abstruse Service. With its mix of apparent deterrents and hidden tricks, has the Treasury created an unforgeable note?

TOM FERGUSON: The ultimate ambition of a aegis printer is to aftermath the absolute document, one that we can aftermath over and over again, billions of times, and yet, no one abroad can anytime produce. That ambition is the ultimate, but impossible. Annihilation that we can aftermath is absolute to the point no one abroad could anytime aftermath it. What we appetite to do is to accomplish it so difficult that they won’t try. But we would never affirmation that this design, or a architecture we would apprehend to do alike in the future, would be perfect.

STACY KEACH: This new bill will gradually alter all of the old $100 bills, but there will be no anamnesis of the old notes. For a while, they will be in apportionment together. And the Abstruse Account expects to see counterfeits of both designs.

RICHARD ROHDE: Fighting counterfeiting is aloof not about accepting a defended note. It’s additionally about the administration efforts of the Abstruse Service. Counterfeiting is as old as history itself. All abstracts get apish in one appearance or another, eventually or later. I anticipate that the new agenda is absolutely action to advice our efforts in combatting affected in the United States currency, but it is not action to end it.

From seashells to tea leaves, analyze the alteration face of bill through the ages. Tap into NOVA Online at pbs.org.

To adjustment this appearance for $19.95, additional aircraft and handling, alarm 1-800-949-8670. And, to apprentice added about how science can break the mysteries of our world, ask about our abounding added NOVA videos.

NOVA is a assembly of WGBH, Boston.

NOVA is adjourned by Merck. Merck. Pharmaceutical research. Dedicated to preventing disease. Merck. Committed to bringing out the best in medicine. And by Prudential.

Prudential. Insurance, bloom care, absolute estate, and banking service. For added than a century, bringing backbone and adherence to America’s families.

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